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                                                                                                                                為什么鈦合金難加工?

                                                                                                                                為什么我們認為鈦合金是一種難加工材料?因為對其加工機理和現象缺乏深刻的認識。

                                                                                                                                1.鈦加工的物理現象

                                                                                                                                鈦合金加工時的切削力只是略高于同等硬度的鋼,但是加工鈦合金的物理現象比加工鋼要復雜得多,從而使鈦合金加工面臨巨大的困難。

                                                                                                                                大多數的鈦合金的熱導率很低,只有鋼的1/7,鋁的1/16。因此,在切削鈦合金過程中產生的熱量不會迅速傳遞給工件或被切屑帶走,而集聚在切削區域,所產生的溫度可高達1 000℃以上,使刀具的刃口迅速磨損、崩裂和生成積屑瘤,快速出現磨損的刀刃,又使切削區域產生更多的熱量,進一步縮短刀具的壽命。

                                                                                                                                切削過程中產生的高溫同時破壞了鈦合金零件的表面完整性,導致零件幾何精度下降和出現嚴重減少其疲勞強度的加工硬化現象。

                                                                                                                                鈦合金的彈性對零件性能來說可能是有益的,但是在切削過程中,工件的彈性變形是產生振動的重要原因。切削壓力使“彈性”的工件離開刀具和反彈,從而使刀具與工件之間摩擦現象大于切削作用。摩擦過程也會產生熱,加重了鈦合金導熱性不良問題。

                                                                                                                                加工薄壁或環形等易變形零件時,這個問題就更加嚴重,將鈦合金薄壁零件加工到預期的尺寸精度不是一件容易的事。因為隨著工件材料被刀具推開時,薄壁的局部變形已經超出彈性范圍而產生塑性變形,切削點的材料強度和硬度明顯增加。此時,按照原先確定的切削速度加工就變得過高,進一步導致刀具急劇磨損。

                                                                                                                                “熱”是鈦合金難加工的“罪魁禍首”!

                                                                                                                                2. 加工鈦合金的工藝訣竅

                                                                                                                                在理解鈦合金加工機理的基礎上,加上以往的經驗,加工鈦合金的主要工藝訣竅如下:

                                                                                                                                (1) 采用正角型幾何形狀的刀片,以減少切削力、切削熱和工件的變形。

                                                                                                                                (2) 保持恒定的進給以避免工件的硬化,在切削過程中刀具要始終處于進給狀態,銑削時徑向吃刀量ae應為半徑的30%。

                                                                                                                                (3) 采用高壓大流量切削液,以保證加工過程的熱穩定性,防止因溫度過高導致工件表面變性和刀具損壞。

                                                                                                                                (4) 保持刀片刃口鋒利,鈍的刀具是熱集結和磨損的原因,容易導致刀具失效。

                                                                                                                                (5) 盡可能在鈦合金最軟的狀態加工,因為淬硬后材料變得更難加工,熱處理提高了材料的強度并增加刀片的磨損。

                                                                                                                                (6) 使用大的刀尖圓弧半徑或倒角切入,盡可能把更多的刀刃進入切削。這可以減少每一點的切削力和熱量,防止局部破損。在銑削鈦合金時,各切削參數中切削速度對刀具壽命vc的影響最大,徑向吃刀量(銑削深度)ae次之。

                                                                                                                                3. 從刀片入手解決鈦加工難題

                                                                                                                                鈦合金加工時出現的刀片溝槽磨損是后面和前面在沿切削深度方向上的局部磨損,它往往是由于前期加工留下的硬化層所造成的。刀具與工件材料在加工溫度超過800℃的化學反應和擴散,也是形成溝槽磨損的原因之一。因為在加工過程中,工件的鈦分子在刀片的前面積聚,在高壓高溫下“焊接”到刀刃上,形成積屑瘤。當積屑瘤從刀刃上剝離時,將刀片的硬質合金涂層帶走,因此,鈦合金加工需要特殊的刀片材料和幾何形狀。

                                                                                                                                4. 適合鈦加工的刀具結構

                                                                                                                                鈦合金加工的焦點是熱,大量高壓切削液要及時準確地噴射到切削刃上,才能夠快速地將熱量移除。市場上有專門用于鈦合金加工的銑刀獨特結構。

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